Challenges and problem situations in contemporary governance and public policy are often difficult to predict or resolve. Modern day problems stem from a wide range and variety of exogenous factors, ‘trigger’ events and conflicts.

These challenges are fundamental social problems with numerous actors, interactions and motivations directing the outcome of public policy and shaping territories and nation-states. Governments, allies and adversaries are confronted with situations that are essentially unknowable; a result of the complex interplay of chance, human will, creativity and intellect.

From this perspective, no amount of data collection or analysis will lead to an absolute ‘truth’ or provide a window into the future. In other words, a problem is not known, but constructed.